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STS-118: Highlights

The STS-118 crew, including Barbara Morgan, narrates its mission highlights film and answers questions in this post-flight presentation.

 Full presentation
 Mission film

STS-120: Rollout to pad

Space shuttle Discovery rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and travels to launch pad 39A for its STS-120 mission.


Dawn leaves Earth

NASA's Dawn space probe launches aboard a Delta 2-Heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral to explore two worlds in the asteroid belt.

 Full coverage

Dawn: Launch preview

These briefings preview the launch and science objectives of NASA's Dawn asteroid orbiter.

 Launch | Science

ISS crew change preview

The Expedition 15 mission draws to a close aboard the space station and the Expedition 16 launch nears. These two briefings from Sept. 25 cover the upcoming transition between the two missions.

 Exp. 15 recap
 Exp. 16 preview

Discovery moves to VAB

Shuttle Discovery is transported from its hangar to the Vehicle Assembly Building for attachment to the external tank and boosters.


STS-120: The programs

In advance of shuttle Discovery's STS-120 mission to the station, managers from both programs discuss the flight.


STS-120: The mission

Discovery's trip to the station will install the Harmony module and move the P6 solar wing truss. The flight directors present a detailed overview of STS-120.

 Part 1 | Part 2

STS-120: Spacewalks

Five spacewalks are planned during Discovery's STS-120 assembly mission to the station. Lead spacewalk officer Dina Contella previews the EVAs.

 Full briefing
 EVA 1 summary
 EVA 2 summary
 EVA 3 summary
 EVA 4 summary
 EVA 5 summary

The Discovery crew

The Discovery astronauts, led by commander Pam Melroy, meet the press in the traditional pre-flight news conference.


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First woman station commander set for launch
Posted: October 9, 2007

A Soyuz rocket is poised for blastoff Wednesday from Kazakhstan to ferry a fresh crew to the international space station, kicking off one of the most complex expeditions in the history of station assembly. NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, a station veteran who will become the first female to command the orbiting lab complex, was jokingly presented with a ceremonial whip during a final news conference "for the men to remember that you are the boss."

"Are you going to use it? Or are you going to be a nice commander?" someone else, presumably a reporter, asked in Russian.

"I'm hoping that I will not be needing this," Whitson replied, according to a translator. "But just in case..."

Whitson, Soyuz commander Yuri Malenchenko and Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, a Malaysian physician flying as a guest of the Russian government, are scheduled for launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome at 9:22:37 a.m. EDT Wednesday. If all goes well, the Soyuz TMA-11 spacecraft will dock with the international space station around 10:52 a.m. Friday.

Whitson spent six months aboard the space station in 2002 as a member of the fifth expedition crew. Malenchenko is a veteran of three space missions including a visit to the old Mir space station, a shuttle flight and as commander of the space station's seventh crew.

Whitson and Malenchenko will replace Expedition 15 commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and flight engineer Oleg Kotov. Both men were launched to the station aboard a Soyuz on April 7. Expedition 15 science officer Clay Anderson, who was launched to the station aboard the shuttle Atlantis June 8, will remain aboard the outpost with Whitson and Malenchenko until his replacement - Dan Tani - arrives at the end of the month aboard the shuttle Discovery.

Shukor, who will return to Earth on Oct. 21 with Yurchikhin and Kotov aboard the Soyuz TMA-10 spacecraft, won a competition to become the first Malaysian in space after the Russians offered a space trip as part of a fighter jet sale to island nation.

"Being a Muslim and going to space is a big responsibility for me, not only for the Malaysian people but all the Muslims all over the world," Shukor said. "I'm sure I'll find a way how to pray and fast in space and I'll come back and I will share it with all the rest of the Muslims all over the world."

For her part, Whitson said she was looking forward to launching aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft from the same launch pad used by Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, at the dawn of the space age.

"The last time I did a six-month mission I launched and landed on the shuttle," Whitson said in a recent interview. "I'm looking forward to the opportunity of actually launching and landing on the Soyuz. For me, it's an additional challenge because I had to learn how to be the left-seat (flight engineer). Yuri is the Soyuz commander but I'm the left-seat flight engineer and it's very involved, it's more involved than I ever would have been, for instance, on a shuttle mission.

"I was pretty impressed with the training program, that they're able to teach a biochemist - in Russian - how to be a left-seat engineer. So it was very challenging for me, but I think it's going to be very satisfying."

Once aboard the space station, Whitson will replace Yurchikhin to become the first female commander of the orbital laboratory.

"I think that the Russians ... are a little further away from our perspective of what the woman's role is," she said. "Knowing other cosmonauts, knowing the trainers, once you get to know them and once you're a part of their lives, they have accepted me in my role and it's very satisfying to me to have them accept me in spite of the fact that culturally, it's not necessarily the norm there.

"And I hope I can influence that as well. But launching on the Soyuz is probably going to be part of that role. And I think being commander is going to be noticed in Russia as well, a female commander."

By coincidence, shuttle Discovery will be commanded by Pam Melroy, a veteran shuttle pilot making her first flight as commander. In another coincidence, Melroy and her crewmates - Tani, pilot George Zamka, Stephanie Wilson, Scott Parazynski, Italian astronaut Paolo Nespoli and Doug Wheelock - planned to strap in aboard Discovery for a dress-rehearsal countdown about an hour before Whitson's launch.

"There's a tremendous amount of coincidence as we are moving forward in our individual flows to launch," Melroy told reporters Tuesday at the Kennedy Space Center. "That actually is pretty stressful for the organization, if you stop and think about trying to have all these things happening in a very short period of time. We're probably more focused on that than we are about this element of the two women commanders being up there together.

"I think for me, the biggest part is the friendship between us and how special that is and how special that makes this moment for us," Melroy said. "But I think that when your compatriots are launching in a space vehicle you cannot help but have your heart and mind be with them. And so as we strap in tomorrow morning, I know that we'll all be acutely aware of our colleagues over there, wishing them the best. And I'm sure they're going to be watching us with the same kind of excitement in a few days."

Whitson's Expedition 16 crew will be responsible for one of the most critical phases of space station assembly yet attempted.

After Shukor and the Expedition 15 crew departs, Whitson, Malenchenko and Anderson will prepare the station for arrival of the shuttle Discovery, scheduled for launch Oct. 23. The primary goal of the flight is to deliver a new multi-hatch module called Harmony that will serve as the connecting point for European Japanese research modules scheduled for launch late this year and early next.

Discovery' crew also plans to move a huge set of stowed solar arrays from an initial central location to the far left end of the station's main power truss, an especially complex task involving handoffs from the station's robot arm to Discovery's and back again after the former is moved from one work site to another. The shuttle astronauts will stage four spacewalks to activate Harmony, move the P6 solar array segment and test heat shield repair techniques. Whitson and Malenchenko plan to stage an EVA of their own before the shuttle crew departs to make preparations for connecting power and cooling to Harmony.

Harmony will be temporarily attached to the left hatch of the station's central Unity module. After Discovery departs, the station crew will use the lab's robot arm to move the main shuttle docking port from the front of the Destiny lab module to the newly arrived Harmony. Harmony and pressurized mating adaptor No. 2 then will be be moved back to the front end of Destiny.

If all goes well, Whitson and Tani will carry out spacewalks Nov. 13 and 17 to route electrical lines and ammonia coolant loops between Harmony and the station's solar power truss. That will set the stage for attachment of the European Space Agency's Columbus module in December and two Japanese modules scheduled for launch in February and April.

"The complexity of the shuttle mission is astounding," Tani said in an interview. "Even a few years ago, any one of the major things we're doing, any one of them would have been a full shuttle's worth of activities. Bringing the node up, attaching it to the station in a temporary location, starting the outfitting - that's a huge task - moving the P6 from its temporary initial location out to the side location, huge, that's a big robotic operation, a big EVA.

"So the significance of this particular mission is big, we're doing many, many complex things and again, allowing the international partners to then bring their hardware up and join the station. ... Once the shuttle leaves, we do some very complex robotic operations and maneuver the node over to its final location. ... and then I would say the big technical part of my stay on station is the EVAs that will follow, where we take fluid trays that have been stored on the station for years and we install them on the lab to provide cooling and power to (Harmony) so it can offer it to the Columbus module and the JEM (Japanese Experiment Module).

"We talk about this as a 45-day shuttle mission in terms of pace," Tani said of his Expedition 16 work. "Shuttle missions are scheduled down to 10-minute increments and generally, usually station timelines are a bit more relaxed. But we are not, we are all go. From the moment of launch to probably until (the shuttle) comes to get me to bring me home, we are go, go, go."

Here is a timeline of Soyuz launch-day activities (in EDT throughout):


03:22:37 AM...Batteries installed in booster
03:22:37 AM...Crew arrives at site 254
03:52:37 AM...State commission 'go' for launch
04:22:37 AM...Fueling begins
04:32:37 AM...Crew dons pressure suits
05:22:37 AM...Booster is loaded with liquid oxygen
05:42:37 AM...Crew meets delegations
06:17:37 AM...Crew reports to the state commission
06:22:37 AM...Crew taken to launch pad
06:22:37 AM...1st/2nd stage oxygen fueling complete
06:42:37 AM...Crew arrives at launch vehicle
06:47:37 AM...Crew ingress through orbital module side hatch
07:17:37 AM...Crew in re-entry vehicle
07:37:37 AM...Re-entry vehicle hardware tested; suits are ventilated
07:52:37 AM...Hatch sealed and tested
08:22:37 AM...Launch vehicle control system preps; gyro activation
08:37:37 AM...Launch pad service structure halves lowered
08:42:37 AM...Suit leak checks; re-entry vehicle testing complete
08:52:37 AM...Emergency escape system armed
08:57:37 AM...Service towers retracted
09:07:37 AM...Suit leak checks complete; escape system to auto
09:12:37 AM...Gyros uncaged; on-board recorders activated
09:15:37 AM...Pre-launch operations complete
09:16:22 AM...Final launch countdown operations to auto
09:16:37 AM...Launch complex and vehicle systems ready
09:17:37 AM...Onboard systems switch to onboard control; commander's
..............controls activated; helmets closed; launch key inserted
09:19:22 AM...Combustion chamber nitrogen purge
09:20:07 AM...Booster propellant tank pressurization begins
09:20:22 AM...Ground propellant feed terminated
09:21:37 AM...Vehicle to internal power; 1st umbilical tower separates;
..............automatic sequencer on
09:21:57 AM...Ground power umbilical to 3rd stage separates
09:22:17 AM...Launch command given; central/side pod engines on
09:22:22 AM...Second umbilical tower separates
09:22:27 AM...Engine turbopumps at flight speed
09:22:32 AM...Engines at maximum thrust

09:22:37 AM...LIFTOFF

09:23:47 AM...Velocity 1,118 mph
09:24:35 AM...Stage 1 strap-on boosters separate
09:24:37 AM...Velocity 3,355 mph
09:25:17 AM...Escape tower/launch shroud jettison
09:27:35 AM...Core booster separates at 105 statute miles
09:30:07 AM...Velocity 13,421 mph
09:31:37 AM...Third stage shutdown; Soyuz in orbit
After the Soyuz capsule's solar arrays unfold and communications antennas deploy, Whitson, Malenchenko and Shukor will settle in for a two-day rendezvous with the space station. Two rendezvous rocket firings are planned Wednesday with a third burn Thursday before the terminal phase of the rendezvous begins with a series of rocket firings Friday morning.

Here is a rendezvous timeline (in EDT and mission elapsed time):


12:58 PM...00...03...36...DV1 rocket firing (dV: 35.6 mph)
01:42 PM...00...04...20...DV2 rocket firing (dV: 23.8 mph)

10:17 AM...01...00...55...DV3 rocket firing (dV: 4.5 mph)

07:19 AM...01...21...57...US-to-Russian motion control system handover
08:09 AM...01...22...47...ISS maneuvers to docking attitude
08:22 AM...01...23...00...AR&D automated rendezvous start
08:42 AM...01...23...20...AR&D DV4 impulse 1 rocket firing (dV: 32.8 mph)
09:05 AM...01...23...43...AR&D impulse 2 rocket firing (dV: 2.4 mph)
09:08 AM...01...23...46...Soyuz/KURS-A rendezvous radar activation
09:10 AM...01...23...48...Zvezda/KURS-P rendezvous radar activation
09:28 AM...02...00...06...AR&D DV5 impulse 3 rocket firing (dV: 52.8 mph)
09:35 AM...02...00...13...Good KURS-P data at 50 miles
09:56 AM...02...00...34...KURS short test at 9 miles
10:01 AM...02...00...39...Range: 5.6 miles
10:02 AM...02...00...40...Range: 5 miles; Soyuz TV activation
10:10 AM...02...00...48...AR&D impulse 4 rocket firing (dV: 15.8 mph)
10:12 AM...02...00...50...AR&D ballistic targeting point
10:15 AM...02...00...53...AR&D impulse 5 rocket firing (dV: 9.1 mph)
10:17 AM...02...00...55...AR&D impulse 6 rocket firing (dV: 3.5 mph)
10:19 AM...02...00...57...AR&D fly around mode start
10:28 AM...02...01...06...AR&D station keeping start
10:41 AM...02...01...19...Russian ground station AOS
10:43 AM...02...01...21...AR&D final approach start
10:48 AM...02...01...26...Sunset
10:52 AM...02...01...30...ISS Docking
10:57 AM...02...01...35...Russian ground station loss of signal
11:12 AM...02...01...50...Soyuz hooks closed
11:59 AM...02...02...37...U.S. motion control system resumes attitude control