BY JUSTIN RAY
February 12, 2000 -- Follow the launch of the Garuda 1 communications satellite aboard a Russian Proton rocket. Reload this page for the very latest on the mission.
1905 GMT (2:05 p.m. EST)
A dozen Proton launches are planned in 2000 with seven commercial missions making up the manifest. A highlight certainly will be the planned July launch of the Zvezda service module, the next piece of the $60 billion International Space Station. Zvezda will service as the initial crew living quarters for the station while using its thrusters to keep the outpost at a safe altitude.
Garuda 1 will complete a series of upcoming rocket firings using its onboard propulsion system. The maneuvers will boost the satellite from its current elliptical geosynchronous transfer orbit to a circular geostationary orbit 22,300 miles above the Earth, parking itself at 123 degrees East longitude over the equator.
Following a series of tests and checks, deployment of the solar arrays and two massive mesh reflectors, the craft will be ready for service in April to relay cellular telephone and data transmissions. It will become the first-of-its-kind satellite to serve the Asian region.
A second Garuda satellite is being built to expand coverage over western and central Asia, the Middle East, Europe and northern Africa.
Each Garuda satellite will provide at least 11,000 simultaneous telephone channels and be capable of supporting up to 2 million subscribers, ACeS says.
"When completed, the ACeS constellation will instantaneously provide the communications infrastructure required to serve more than half of the world's population," said Peter Kujawski, president of Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems, which built Garuda 1. "Given the size and topography of Asia, satellite-based telecommunications service is the best way to serve this market. We're extremely pleased to be part of the ACeS team."
ACeS International is jointly owned by PT Pasifik Satelit Nusantara (PSN) of Indonesia, Lockheed Martin Global Telecommunications (LMGT) of Bethesda, Md., USA, the Philippine Long Distance Company (PLDT) and Jasmine International Public Company Ltd. of Thailand.
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0930:54 GMT (4:30:54 a.m. EST)
We do not expect any additional information from International Launch Services regarding status of the flight until after spacecraft separation expected at about T+6 hours, 40 minutes. We will update next once further information becomes available.
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The Proton rocket's first three stages that make up the core vehicle will complete their mission in the first 9 minutes, 48 seconds of the launch. At that point, the third stage will separate from the Block DM upper stage and attached Garuda 1 spacecraft. The Block DM will perform a suborbital firing today to deliver the stage and satellite into a 124-nautical mile high parking orbit around Earth. Two later burns -- one at T+plus 73 minutes and the other at T+6 hours, 17 minutes -- will inject the Garuda 1 payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. Separation of Garuda 1 from the Block DM to complete the launch will occur 6 hours, 39 minutes, 51 seconds after launch. The satellite's onboard propulsion system will later raise and circularize its orbit at geostationary altitude 22,300 miles above Earth.
0850:54 GMT (3:50:54 a.m. EST)
The Garuda 1 satellite being launched today is the first spacecraft in ACeS constellation. It will be parked at 123 degrees East longitude in geostationary orbit 22,300 miles above the Earth's equator later this month. Garuda should enter service in April providing voice, facsimile, data and Internet services through hand-held mobile and fixed terminals throughout Asia. The Lockheed Martin-built satellite has the capability for 10,000 simultaneous telephone channels operating in C-band and L-band frequencies. The designed service life is 15 years or more.
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Russian rocket maker Khrunichev and its engine manufacturer Voronezh Mechanical Plant has spent the last 3 1/2 months determining why two Proton rockets suffered nearly identical failures last year. On July 5 and October 27, the second stages of Proton boosters malfunctioned, sending the rockets crashing back to Earth.
Investigators concluded poor workmanship during the construction of second stage engines more than six years ago doomed the rockets. Debris and foreign materials were left in the engines, causing the powerplants to explode during launch.
Russian officials have developed plans to prevent similar engine problems in the future including better quality control processes during manufacturing and special examinations of all flight motors. Design changes will be incorporated into new engines when they are built starting later this year.
The passenger for today's launch is the Garuda-1 spacecraft for Asia Cellular Satellite (ACeS). Built by Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems, the Garuda-1 satellite will provide voice, facsimile and pager services through hand-held mobile and fixed terminals to Western and Central Asia, Eastern Europe and parts of Northern Africa.
There will be a 12-second launch window to get the Proton off the ground today starting at 0910:54 GMT (4:10:54 a.m. EST). Liftoff will occur from pad 23 at Baikonur Cosmodrome's Launch Complex 81 in Kazakhstan.
The mission will be managed by International Launch Services. ILS is a consortium between the U.S. Lockheed Martin and Russian Khrunichev and Energia aerospace firms that globally markets Proton and Atlas rockets.
"We are satisfied that the work completed by the Khrunichev and ILS teams will allow for the successful return-to-flight of Proton," said Adi Adiwoso, CEO and President of ACeS International. "We are excited that the ACeS/Garuda-1 commercial mission will mark the first launch on Proton since last October."
Flight data file
Payload: Garuda 1
Launch date: Feb. 12, 2000
Launch window: 0910:54-0911:06 (4:10-4:11 a.m. EST)
Launch site: Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan
The International Launch Services Proton rocket lifts off from Baikonur Cosmodrome on Saturday carrying the Garuda 1 satellite.
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Launch timeline - Chart with times of the events to occur during launch.
Ascent profile - Description of the launch process from liftoff through deployment of Garuda 1.
The Garuda 1 satellite - Overview of the ACeS communications spacecraft.
Explore the Net
International Launch Services - Lockheed Martin, Khrunichev and Energia consortium which globally markets the Russian Proton and U.S. Atlas rockets.
Asia Cellular Satellite - Will operate Garuda 1 as part of Global Mobile Personal Communications Services based in Indonesia.
Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems - U.S. manufacturer of Garuda 1.
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