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Launch of Phoenix

The Phoenix lander bound for the northern plains of Mars is launched atop a Delta 2 rocket from Cape Canaveral.

 Full coverage

Phoenix to the pad

The Phoenix lander bound for Mars is hauled to Cape Canaveral's pad 17A on July 23 for installation atop the Delta 2 rocket that will propel the craft on its cruise from Earth to Mars.

 Part 1 | Part 2

Dawn waits for date

The Dawn spacecraft is returned to a processing facility to await a new launch date. The mission was delayed from July to September, prompting the craft's removal from the Delta rocket at pad 17B.

 Part 1 | Part 2

Spacewalk highlights

This highlights movie from the July 23 station spacewalk shows the jettisoning of a support platform and a refrigerator-size tank.


Expedition 16 crew

Members of the upcoming space station Expedition 16 crew, led by commander Peggy Whitson, hold a pre-flight news briefing.


Mars lander preview

A preview of NASA's Phoenix Mars lander mission and the science objectives to dig into the arctic plains of the Red Planet are presented here.


Phoenix animation

Project officials narrate animation of Phoenix's launch from Earth, arrival at Mars, touchdown using landing rockets and the craft's robot arm and science gear in action.


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Astronomers spot brightest galaxies in distant universe
Posted: August 22, 2007

CAMBRIDGE, MA - By combining the capabilities of several telescopes, astronomers have spotted extremely bright galaxies hiding in the distant, young universe. The newfound galaxies are intrinsically bright due to their large rate of star formation-1000 times greater than the Milky Way. However, much of that light is hidden by surrounding dust and gas, leaking out only in the infrared.

The galaxies are located about 12 billion light-years away, and existed when the universe was less than 2 billion years old. They are the most luminous and massive galaxies seen at that great distance. Smaller, dimmer galaxies were much more common in the early universe because it takes time for galaxies to form and grow.

"It's a real surprise to find galaxies that massive and luminous existing so early in the universe," said astronomer Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). "We are witnessing the moment when the most massive galaxies in the universe were forming most of their stars in their early youth."

"It's tough to explain how such bright, massive, dusty galaxies formed so early in the lifetime of the universe," added Harvard graduate student Josh Younger.

The hide-and-seek galaxies initially were spotted with the AzTEC imaging camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The camera, developed by a team led by Grant Wilson and Min Yun of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, discovered several hundred previously unseen galaxies that were bright at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

A team of astronomers made follow-up observations of the seven brightest galaxies in an area of the sky studied by the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). The Smithsonian's Submillimeter Array pinpointed the exact location of each galaxy, allowing the team to confirm that the source was a single galaxy and not a blend of several fainter galaxies.

Once precise locations were known, additional observations were made with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Very Large Array of radio telescopes. Even Hubble's powerful vision did not detect the galaxies, confirming that they are shrouded in dust that blocks visible light. Spitzer could penetrate the dust and detect the stars directly. The Very Large Array detected only the two closest galaxies.

By combining these measurements, the astronomers showed that five of the seven AzTEC galaxies are located at redshifts greater than 3, which corresponds to a distance of 12 billion light-years.

"These results suggest that the brightest submillimeter galaxies may be the most distant," said Fazio.

The galaxies' large infrared brightness indicates that they are forming new stars rapidly, probably due to collisions and mergers.

"The source of the infrared radiation seems to be very compact, which suggests that they are colliding galaxies that may eventually evolve into quasars," said Younger.

In the future, the astronomers plan to image more sources of submillimeter radiation in different cosmic environments, to try to better understand the population.

"We also plan to use the most extended configuration of the SMA to zoom in and try to resolve these objects, and really narrow down the source of their extreme infrared luminosity," added Younger.

Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.