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Back to the Moon!
NASA unveils the agency's blueprint for building the future spacecraft and launch vehicles needed for mankind's return to the lunar surface in the next decade.

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Distant space explosion
Astronomers announce the detection by NASA's Swift satellite of the most distant explosion yet, a gamma-ray burst from the edge of the visible universe, during this media teleconference held Monday, September 12. (54min 01sec file)

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Hill-climbing Mars rover
The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has reached the summit of Husband Hill, returning a spectacular panorama from the hilltop in the vast Gusev Crater. Scientists held a news conference Sept. 1 to reveal the panorama and give an update on the twin rover mission.

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Planes track Discovery
To gain a new perspective on space shuttle Discovery's ascent and gather additional imagery for the return to flight mission, NASA dispatched a pair of high-flying WB-57 aircraft equipped with sharp video cameras in their noses.

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Rocket booster cams
When space shuttle Discovery launched its two solid-fuel booster rockets were equipped with video cameras, providing dazzling footage of separation from the external fuel tank, their free fall and splashdown in the sea.

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Discovery ferried home
Mounted atop a modified Boeing 747, space shuttle Discovery was ferried across the country from Edwards Air Force Base, California, to Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

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Shuttle tank returned
Shuttle fuel tank ET-119 is loaded onto a barge at Kennedy Space Center for the trip back to Lockheed Martin's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans. The tank will be used in the investigation to determine why foam peeled away from Discovery's tank on STS-114 in July.

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Delta 4 launch delayed
Launch of the GOES-N weather observatory aboard a Boeing Delta 4 rocket is postponed at Cape Canaveral, Florida.

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Mars probe leaves Earth
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter lifts off aboard a Lockheed Martin Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral's Complex 41.

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Baby photo of stellar twins
Posted: September 21, 2005

Newborn stars are difficult to photograph. They tend to hide in the nebulous stellar nurseries where they formed, enshrouded by thick layers of dust. Now, Smithsonian astronomer T.K. Sridharan (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and his colleagues have photographed a pair of stellar twins in infrared light, which penetrates the dust. And these babies are whoppers, weighing several times the mass of the Sun.

In this pseudo-color image, longer-wavelength infrared light is represented as red while shorter-wavelength infrared is represented as blue. The pink spot at the center of the image is the higher-mass primary star. To its lower right, a green spot marks the location of a less massive companion star seen here for the first time. The bright blue-white spots at left and upper right are cavities cleared in the surrounding circumstellar disk by an outflow from the newborn star system. Credit: T.K. Sridharan (CfA), S.J. Williams & G.A Fuller (UMIST)
Moreover, Sridharan's images reveal a circumstellar disk surrounding the more massive of the two stars. The presence of a disk suggests that massive, multiple-star systems form the same way as the Sun, by gradually accreting material from a gaseous disk.

"This system is the youngest massive binary ever to be directly imaged - only about 100,000 years old," said Sridharan.

Sridharan and his colleagues studied an object known as IRAS 20126+4104, located more than 5,000 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus the Swan. IRAS 20126+4104 was suspected of harboring a binary star because outflows from the region wobbled back and forth like a spinning top. The wobble hinted at the gravitational tug of an unseen companion.

On several exceptionally clear and steady nights, the researchers were able to take highly detailed infrared images of this object using the UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Those images revealed not one but two stars, as well as a dark dust lane where the inner parts of the disk, known from previous radio-wavelength observations, appeared nearly edge-on in silhouette.

"Many people have seen the iconic Hubble Space Telescope images of circumstellar disks around low-mass stars. This image is the equivalent for high-mass stars," said Sridharan.

Between them the two stars weigh more than 10 times the mass of the Sun. Sridharan calculates that the surrounding disk contains at least one-tenth of a solar mass, which is enough material to make 100 Jupiter-sized worlds. The disk may be even more massive. It extends outward for at least 850 astronomical units, or 80 billion miles (more than 20 times the distance to Pluto). Interestingly, the smaller companion star currently is located at the same distance from the primary star, hinting that the companion's gravity may play a role in limiting the outer reaches of the disk.

Sridharan said that the next step in studying this intriguing twin system is to get higher-resolution observations using adaptive optics or interferometry. Such data will yield a better estimate of the companion's mass and a detailed profile of the disk.

"We are currently following several leads to investigate this star system, so stay tuned," Sridharan added.

Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.